Welcome to the FRM4GHG website


Fiducial Reference Measurements for Ground-Based Infrared Greenhouse Gas Observations (FRM4GHG) is a European Space Agency (ESA) funded project focusing on the intercomparison of instruments and harmonization of retrievals and products from collocated new and established GHG observation ground based Infrared instrumentations to get Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRMs) for Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). These dataset will also be used for the validation of satellite missions targeting:

  • carbon dioxide (CO2)

  • methane (CH4)

  • carbon monoxide (CO)

  • other climate relevant trace gases

The intercomparison campaign will identify and characterize differences related to the processing of the data for the retrieval algorithms as used by the different teams. The objective is also to find out the advantages and disadvantages of the different instrumentations used for the analysis of the same atmospheric scene. Upon successful completion of this dedicated intercomparison campaign, the objective to ensure that the outcome is taken into account by stakeholders.

Furthermore, it will give recommendations as to establish new GHG observation systems using the portable low cost systems tested in the campaign around the periphery of the existing networks like the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change - Infrared Working Group (NDACC-IRWG).

This project has received research funding from the European Space Agency's FRM Programme under grant agreement no. 4000117640/16/I-LG.


FRM4GHG 2.0 project

The FRM4GHG 1.0 project has achieved the characterization of various portable low-resolution spectrometers for GHG measurements and the demonstration, through inter-comparison results including comparisons with collocated AirCore observations, of their suitability for campaign deployment or for long-term measurements from any site. As such, it has demonstrated that the investigated portable low-resolution spectrometers offer the capability to further complement the TCCON and expand the global coverage of ground-based FRM of the target GHGs.

The FRM4GHG 2.0 project is a follow-up project to further improve the investigated low-resolution instruments with respect to hardware and software, the associated data analysis algorithms and the links with the TCCON and complementary COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON).

The project consortium for the FRM4GHG 2.0 is the same as the initial project. Starting from the experience and conclusions obtained in FRM4GHG 1.0, all partners will (1) continue to improve the operation of the instruments (e.g. alignment, portability, precision of solar tracking, noise characteristics) and of the AirCore observations, (2) improve the GHG data retrieval algorithms including (amongst others) latest development in spectroscopy, optimization of the retrieval of partial column information and of additional species (HCHO) from the low-resolution spectrometers, and develop additional AirCore observations (N2O, OCS) that are relevant for the validation of the atmospheric Sentinel missions or additional GHG targets, (3) further establish the links with TCCON and COCCON, for ensuring that these FRM networks also benefit from the R&D in FRM4GHG 2.0.


The FRM4GHG 2.0 project has received research funding from the European Space Agency's FRM Programme under grant agreement no. 4000136108/21/I-DT-lr.


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